Measuring or predicting module temperature is the first step in estimating cell temperature, which is needed predict the module IV curve. Module temperature depends on a number of factors, including air temperature, irradiance, wind speed, and module materials. Most models are steady-state and therefore appropriate for time steps of about 30 minutes or more. Sandia and ASU just published a new transient module temperature model that is based on a moving average of a steady-state model:
- M. Prilliman, J. S. Stein, D. Riley and G. Tamizhmani, “Transient Weighted Moving-Average Model of Photovoltaic Module Back-Surface Temperature,” in IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics, doi: 10.1109/JPHOTOV.2020.2992351.