Measuring or predicting module temperature is the first step in estimating cell temperature, which is needed predict the module IV curve. Module temperature depends on a number of factors, including air temperature, irradiance, wind speed, and module materials. Most models are steady state and therefore appropriate for time steps of about 30 minutes or more. Sandia and ASU just published a new transient module temperature model that is based on a moving average of a steady state model:
- M. Prilliman, J. S. Stein, D. Riley and G. Tamizhmani, “Transient Weighted Moving-Average Model of Photovoltaic Module Back-Surface Temperature,” in IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics, doi: 10.1109/JPHOTOV.2020.2992351.